The Other Bread

bannockTo follow up the post on the ever popular fry bread, it is important to know there are other breads that are seen as traditional for American Indian Tribes.   I thought about doing this follow up piece to the fry bread post after hearing a nutrition educator from the Minnesota Chippewa tribe talk about their efforts to offer bannock in place of fry bread at community gatherings .  Bannock is a traditional Ojibwe bread that is often baked.  The bannock, of course, having less calories and fat than fry bread will take less time in the gym to work off after eating the several pieces we are likely to consume!

Other traditional breads of American Indian Tribes include cornbread, tortillas, and Lugaled to name a few.  I’m sure you’ve heard of the first two but Lugaled is a traditional bread for which my grandma had recipes in her recipe files.  Lugaled, also spelled Lagilette, means fire bread.  It was traditionally made in a skillet over the open fire, or if there wasn’t a skillet available, the dough could be wrapped around a branch and baked over the flames.

The recipe for Lugaled in my grandma’s collection includes flour, baking powder, salt, lard, and water.   These were likely ingredients that were available either on the reservation or by trading.  By hearing the ingredients you can imagine it would be more like a biscuit than the fluffy fry bread.  I’m told by one of the nutrition program staff in Red Cliff that it is best with bacon on it!  Obviously, our more healthy option is compromised with bacon!

A friend and student of my grandma’s, James “Jimmy” Pete, wrote a cultural preservation article for the Red Cliff Tribal Community in which he addressed the importance of remembering Lugaled.  It was clear from his article that Lugaled had a connection to the past and is a small way of keeping traditions in the forefront of our lives.  Like many traditional foods, it is a way to bridge generations by sharing stories and sometimes tall tales of what it has meant in our lives.

Lugaledlugaled

5 cups flour

4 tsp baking powder

1 tsp salt

4 tbsp. lard or drippings

2 ½ cups water

Mix dry ingredients.  Add fat and work until crumbly.  Add water.  The dough will be stiff.  Knead in a bowl for 10 rounds.  Add a bit of flour if mixture is sticky.  Place in a greased flat cake pan and bake at 400° for 40 minutes.  Lug can be cooked outside by an open fire by placing in a greased skilled and facing the fire.  When one side is brown, turn over in pan and cook the other side the same way.

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Venison Wild Rice Meatloaf

Unlike most commercial farming today where animals are raised under intense pressure to pack on the pounds as quickly as possible (often times with the help of steroids and growth hormones), whitetail deer live a more free and natural life without any hormones, additives or antibiotics added. They live and grow in a wild environment munching on leaves  berries, new shoot twigs, nuts, grass & other natural food.

INGREDIENTS                                                                                                     

  • 2 pounds ground venisonPicture2
  • 1 cup carrot (finely chopped)
  • 1 cup onion (finely chopped)
  • 1/4 cup brown sugar
  • 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 3 eggs
  • 2 cups wild rice (cooked)

Tomato Jam Sauce

  • 1 jar (18 oz) orange marmalade
  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 can (14.5 oz) diced tomatoes

DIRECTIONS 

  1. Preheat oven to 375° F.   Spray a 8 1/2” x 4 1/2” loaf pan with non-stick cooking spray.
  2. In a medium bowl, combine venison, carrot, onion, brown sugar, Worcestershire sauce, salt. Whisk eggs together and add to meat mixture. Mix well. Once combined, add cooked wild rice to mixture and mix well.
  3. Press mixture into the greased loaf pan. Bake for 1 hour and 15 minutes.   Remove from oven and drain liquid and skim away any fat. Before serving, top with tomato jam sauce (see next step for recipe).
  4. For tomato jam sauce: in a small sauce pan, combine 14.5 oz can of diced tomatoes, 1 teaspoon cinnamon and 18 oz jar of orange marmalade. Bring to a boil. Immediately remove from heat and set aside.

Per serving (1 slice meatloaf with 1 1/2 tablespoons tomato jam – makes 10 servings):   292 calories, 8 grams total fat (4 grams saturated fat, 0 grams trans fat), 33 grams carbohydrate, 23 grams protein, 365 milligrams sodium, 2 grams fiber.

Source: http://diningwithalice.com/twin-cities-live/venison-meatloaf/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waawaashkeshi (Deer)

Many different types of meat were eaten by the Ojibwe, such as omashkooz (elk), mooz (moose) and makwa (bear). But deer, or venison, is one of the most commonly consumed today.

The diets of Native Americans varied with the location of each tribe. But all were based on animal foods of every kind. Native peoples diets included not only large game like deer, buffalo, wild sheep, antelope, moose, elk, caribou, and bear but also small animals such as beaver, rabbit, squirrel, muskrat, turtle and raccoon as well as many different types of fish, shellfish and wild birds including ducks and geese.

winter-deer-janelle-streedThe Ojibwe traditionally hunted many of these animals. However, several of these animals have decreased in number in many areas, preferring northern lands that are less populated. Elk and moose, for example, are much less part of the diet as they once were. Today, the most commonly consumed wild game is deer, or venison, along with fish and other small game.

By Ojibwe tradition, waawaashkeshi are ready for harvest when fireflies begin making small sparks in the night air. The Ojibwe were extremely skilled hunters. They hunted all animals in a very careful way. Prayers of thanks and gratitude to the animal were extended before, during and after the hunt.

Food was hunted for the entire community. The entire animal was used, not just the muscle (meat) for food. The skin, or hide, of the deer was used to make clothes, shoes and bedding. The meat was eaten fresh and dried in long strips to eat during the long winter.

The fat of the animal was one of the most important sources of calories for the Ojibwe. Organs, tendons and bone were all utilized as well.   Nothing was wasted, as that would be an insult to the animal who had given his life.

Venison was also an important part of feasts and gatherings. Today, hunting is still a widespread practice among the Ojibwe. Many people still honor the animal in the old way and venison is a tasty part of the diet!

 Healthy Waawaashkeshi

Venison is perhaps one of the healthiest meats in the world!

It is a very good source of protein.   Venison is higher in protein than beef & chicken! And, at the same time, it is lower in fat than most commercially available beef.

One 3 oz portion of venison—about the size of a deck of cards or the palm of your hand—contains about 134 calories & 3 grams of fat versus 247 calories & 15 grams of fat in the same sized portion of beef.

Venison is also a good source of iron. Again, venison beats out beef as an iron source! Iron is essential to women who are more at risk for iron deficiency. Growing children and adolescents also have an increased need for iron.

Iron is a key part of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron is also essential for energy & metabolism.

Biboon (Winter)

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Bison in Yellowstone Park

Biboon is the Ojibwe word for winter.  For many Native peoples, colder winter weather meant an increased need for heavier foods such as meat like venison & buffalo (and meat’s naturally occurring fat like lard) and complex starches and fiber found in sweet potatoes, winter squash and wild rice (and other foods which can be stored over the winter months). This might also include dried jerky (pemmican), dried berries, corn (hominy), and canned goods.

 

Nanabozho and the Wild Geese

Nanabozho is the benevolent culture hero of Anishinaabe tribes.  He is known by over 36 different names!  Some of the other names he may be called include:  Wenabozho, Nanaboozhoo, Nanabush and Manabozho to name a few.  

His name is spelled so many different ways partially because the Anishinaabe languages were originally unwritten (so English speakers just spelled the name however it sounded to them at the time), and partially because the Ojibway, Algonquin, Potawatomi, and Menominee languages are spoken across a huge geographical range in both Canada and the US, and the name sounds different in the different languages and dialects they speak.

The differing first letters of his name, however, have a more interesting story.  Nanabozho’s grandmother, who named him, used the particle “N-” to begin his name, which means “my”.  Other speakers – who are not Nanabozho’s grandmother – would normally drop this endearment and use the more general prefixes W- or M-.  So if you listen to a fluent Ojibwe speaker telling a Nanabozho story, he may refer to the culture hero as Wenabozho most of the time but switch to Nanabozho when narrating for his grandmother!

Stories about Nanabozho vary considerably from community to community.  Nanabozho is usually said to be the son of either the West  Wind or the Sun, and since his mother died when he was a baby, Nanabozho was raised by his grandmother, Nokomis.  In some tribal traditions, Nanabozho is an only child, but in others he has a twin brother or is the eldest of four brothers.  The most important of Nanabozho’s brother figures is Chibiabos or Moqwaio, Nanabozho’s inseparable companion (often portrayed as a wolf) variously said to be his twin brother, younger brother or adopted brother.  

Nanabozho is associated with rabbits and is sometimes referred to as the Great Hare (Misabooz), although he is rarely depicted as taking the physical form of a rabbit.  Nanabozho is a trickster figure and can be a bit of a rascal, but unlike trickster figures in some tribes, he does not model immoral or seriously inappropriate behavior – Nanabozho is a virtuous hero and a dedicated friend and teacher of humanity.  Though he may behave in mischievous, foolish and humorous ways in the course of his teachings, Nanabozho never commits crimes or disrespects Native culture and is viewed with great respect and affection by Anishinaabe people.

Source:  Native Languages of the Americas

Today, I’d like to share a Nanabozho story with you called Nanabozho (pronounced Nah-nah-boh-ZHO) and the Wild Geese.   The story comes from the book Tales of Nanabozho by Dorothy M Reid (© 1963 Oxford University Press, Canada).  Nanabozho stories often teach a lesson.  What do you think the lesson in this story is meant to be?  I’d love to hear from you in the comments!

Nanabozho and the Wild Geese

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One day, the great trickster, Nanabozho was wandering through the woods looking for mischief when he came to the shore of a small lake.  Suddenly, he heard a great commotion overhead.  He looked up and saw a flock of geese.  The geese were weary from their journey from the North where they had spent the summer and were wheeling overhead preparing to land on the lake.  Nanabozho hurried in the direction of their flight and saw the birds come to rest on the water with a great flurry and folding of wings.  He thought of what a delicious feast the birds would make.

But first he had to come up with a scheme to capture as many geese as possible, for if he dashed among them, he would catch only one or two.  Going quickly but quietly back into the woods, he peeled off strips of cedar bark and made a long rope.  Then he slipped quietly back into the water, being careful not to disturb the weary birds.  He swam under them and tied their legs together with his cedar rope.  At the same time, he tied each goose to the next one so that he could pull them all up on shore together.

At first all went well, for Nanabozho was so cunning and swift that the geese did not notice him or know what was happening.  But his greed finally got him into trouble.  Instead of being happy with a few geese, he went on to tie up the whole flock.  Just as he was finishing, he had to come up for air.  He made such a loud whoosh that he frightened the geese.  The first goose to fly up was in the middle of the rope and all the others followed.  As they rose from the lake, they formed a V because they were tied together, and Nanabozho dangled at one end.  He shouted to the birds to stop, but the geese only beat the air more desperately with their strong gray wings.  Just then the birds flew over a stretch of soft, swampy ground.  Nanabozho let go of the rope with a shout and landed in a bed of oozing mud.

As for the geese, they continued on their way, still flying in a V because of the rope that joined them together.  Wild geese have been flying that way ever since, as you can see if you look up into the autumn sky when they go calling past.  Some think they can hear a note of laughter in their cries as they mock Nanabozho for failing in his trick.

It was not long before Nanabozho forgot the foolish side of his adventure.  All he remembered was that he flown through the air.  He made up a song celebrating his feat, a song he never tired of singing:

Flocks of wild geese up in the sky,

Nanabozho flew as far and as high.

The people listened respectfully to Nanabozho’s song, but whenever he was out of hearing they sang a different one.

High in the autumn sky

Wild geese are calling

Down from the autumn sky

Nana is falling.

Traditional Plant Scavenger Hunt

The use of native plants as food and medicine is an important part of American Indian culture and lore. My grandma often gave talks about the traditional plants and their medicinal uses and shared stories that she learned about them. We would go for walks with her while she looked for various plants. Often she could find some of them by just taking one step out of the door.

 
So we are sending you on Indian Pipe scavenger hunt of plants commonly used by the Ojibwe. Take the time to get out and enjoy nature for soon the seasons will change again. Get your family and friends together for a hike and see how many you can find. Be active and learn a little something along the way!

 
Please note: We are not offering medical advice simply sharing the old remedies. See your own health care provider for any symptoms you may have.

Indian Pipe

indian pipe

Indian Pipe

While growing up, when my grandma would come and journey outside with us, the plant I always wanted to find was the Indian Pipe.

The Indian Pipe had many uses including:

  • Using juice of plant mixed with water for eye drops
  • Using dried plant for pain relief and to induce sleep

My grandma would always say that wherever you found an Indian Pipe, it meant that Wenabojoo had been traveling there too and dropped some tobacco.

Wintergreen

wintergreen

Wintergreen

It is easy to find wintergreen. It grows close to the ground and rarely grows much higher than 6 inches. Wintergreen is used as a pain reliever and to soothe upset stomachs. Typically leaves are harvested in the fall and dried to make teas but wintergreen oil can also be used.

Wintergreen Tea

Collect green wintergreen leaves and boiled in a kettle for 10 minutes. Strain liquid. Add maple syrup or sugar to sweeten to taste. Serve!

Wild Chamomile

wild chamomille

Wild Chamomile

The wild chamomile is a bit different than what is commonly classified as chamomile. The common uses for the Ojibwe tribes were as a sleep aid and to reduce inflammation. For those in need, it was also thought to reduce flatulence…nature’s own Bean-O!

 

 

Common Plantain

common plantain

Common Plantain

Plantain is everywhere. You might not even notice it. I’m sure most lawns or roadsides have patches of this plant. The leaves are described as leathery and have thicker stalks. It was used as a poultice and applied to open wounds to prevent infection.

 

 

Yarrow

yarrow

Yarrow

Yarrow has clusters of white flowers and bright green leaves. It typically blooms June through October and is found in many different places. The leaves were often used for headache remedies and to reduce bleeding. The flower is said to have been smoke for ceremonial purposes.

 

White Pine

white pine

White Pine

You should have no trouble finding some pine trees in Northern Wisconsin! The Ojibwe boiled the needles in water to create a tea or syrup. It was used for coughs and colds as it was high in Vitamin C. Some tribes also used the sweet inner bark of the tree for similar reasons. White pine was used as a seasoning for meats such as venison.

Cattails

cattails

Cattails

I love searching for cattails but tread carefully. They tend to be located in boggy, swampy areas and you might get a bit more contact with nature than you bargain for!

The chopped root has been mashed and used as an ointment for cuts and burns.

Several parts of this plant can be prepared and eaten in a variety of ways from cooking the shoots (early) like asparagus to cooking the starchy core of each sprout like a potato.

 

Berry Wild Rice Breakfast

Wild rice for breakfast?  Yes!!  This hearty breakfast uses two Ojibwe staple foods – berries and wild rice.  You will get all the benefits of the vitamin C in the berries plus the fiber from the wild rice. Fiber helps you feel full for a longer time so this breakfast dish will fill you up for a long day of summer time fun!   As a bonus, wild rice is also an excellent source of niacin which helps your body release the energy in the foods  you eat to help fuel you up for those long summertime days!


INGREDIENTS

 1/2—3/4 cup blueberries, strawberries or raspberriesPicture1

1 tablespoon butter

1 cup cooked wild rice

2 tablespoons honey or maple syrup

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon cinnamon

 

DIRECTIONS

  1.  Melt butter in sauté pan over low heat. Add berries and warm gently for 1 to 2 minutes.
  2. Add remaining ingredients and heat through.
  3. Serve in a bowl with milk.

 

Serves 2

Per serving : 211 calories; 6 g fat; 37 g carbohydrate; 4 g fiber; 4 g protein.

Note: Nutrition information does not include milk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Strawberry Teaching

This strawberry teaching is an excerpt from a transcript as shared by Ojibwe/Powawatomi Elder, Lilian Pitawanakwat.  To read the full transcript, please visit:  http://www.fourdirectionsteachings.com/transcripts/ojibwe.html


 

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Lillian Pitawanakwat, Ojibwe/Powawatomi Elder

“The strawberry teaching is a story of forgiveness and peace. The strawberry is shaped like a heart and strawberries are known to our people as heart berries. We were taught stories like these from a very early age. In the strawberry teaching we learn something about death and about the power of change and healing and that finding peace doesn’t necessarily come from the head – it comes from the heart.” 

 


PrintA long time ago, there was a family that chose to no longer live in their village because of community feuding and ill will. This young family took their two little boys and said, “Let us go back into the forest, and we’ll let the trees nurture our children; we’ll let the birds sing songs to remind them of their own songs. And we’ll let the animals become their friends.” And so they packed up their little boys and went deep into the forest.

The father offered his tobacco, and asked the tree nation to give him a home. He was granted that gift and so he cut down the trees. He made a home for his family and they moved in. The boys grew tall and strong, and yet year after year they continued to play fight and wrestle. Finally when they were in their teens, their mother said to them, “It’s time for you to give up your childish ways.” And they said, “Okay mom, we won’t wrestle anymore.” But as soon as they were out of earshot from their mother, they said, “Let’s go deeper into the forest and we’ll build a wrestling ring for ourselves, so we can go out there any time we feel like it.” And so they did. They cleared some land and went there secretly, without their mother’s knowledge.

And then one fateful day the time came when the boys were wrestling and the older brother knocked his younger brother to the ground, where he hit his head on a rock and died instantly. The oldest brother was beside himself. He said, “Please, please wake up…… Mom and dad are going to kill me. Please, please answer me.” The only answer was silence. He cried and begged his brother: “Please, please.” Finally after a couple of hours, a voice told him: “Bury your brother.” And so he dug into the ground and put his brother there. He covered him up and ran home.

Out of breath, he ran to his parents: “Mom, Dad I’ve lost my brother in the forest – I can’t find him.” And, so the parents went out with him and they looked. They couldn’t find him anywhere. The father said, “I will go into the community, and seek out our relatives to come and help us form a search party so we can find him.” So they searched for ten days, and ten nights, and then they went into mourning after they couldn’t find their son.

But every day the brother would go to his little brother’s grave, and he would say, “Please, please tell me that you’re okay! Please!” And he would cry as he walked away, because he had no answer. And years went by. He carried this sadness into manhood because only he knew where his brother’s body lay.

After many years and visits to his grave, the elder brother saw a tiny plant. He watched it grow into a strawberry vine on top of his brother’s grave. Each day he watched the leaves grow and the berries come into fruition.

White heart-shaped berries appeared first. Then, over days, they transformed into big red delicious berries, luscious and sweet. As he contemplated them, a voice from inside him said, “Take a berry and eat it.” So he picked a berry and put it in his mouth.

As he ate it, he became aware, for the first time in his life, that he could taste the sweetness of life again. No more did he blame himself for his brother’s death, and no more did he blame his brother for not answering him. He no more blamed his parents for their strict upbringing. And, most of all, he no more blamed the Creator for taking his brother’s life. He was free. After all of the long years, he was finally free.

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Ode’iminan (Strawberries)

Berries are an important food for many animals and people, especially in Ojibwe tradition. Berries are not simply something to sprinkle on cereal—they are one of the four sacred foods in Ojibwe culture.

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Beautiful beaded ode’imin on this purse!

June is the time the wild strawberries start ripening and begin to appear, glowing like fire in the grass.  The heart shape of the berry gave the strawberry the name ode’imin.  In fact, the word ode’imin translates to heart berry.  Wild strawberries differ from the cultivated strawberries we see in the grocery store.  Wild strawberries are small; a wild strawberry the size of a thumbnail would be considered large.   And,  unlike some of their domestic cousins, wild strawberries are very sweet and have an intense strawberry flavor.  I’ve been told by people who’ve tried them that once you’ve had a wild strawberry, you will never forget it!

In the Ojibwe culture, each plant was given a soul-spirit and some believe the soul-spirit of this fruit was unique, unlike any other.  It is told that the soul-spirit of the strawberry was that of a being not admitted into the Land of Souls and who was returned to earth complete its term of being in the form of this heart-shaped berry.  Other Anishinabeg teachings portray the strawberries as “preserving marital harmony, their heart-shaped form being a reminder to those who may have forgotten, why we live with a loved one” (from Basil Johnson, Ojibwe heritage, taken from “Jiibaakweda Gimiijiminaan, Let’s Cook Our Food” a collection of recipes by Native Harvest, copyright 2003, Morris Press Cookbooks.)

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Ode’iminan hiding in the grass

During the summer, when berries were abundant, the Anishinaabeg would eat the berries fresh.  They would also gather the berries to preserve for use over the long winter months.  Berries were preserved in many ways. In one method, the Ojibwe would weave mats from strips of pine bark, lay berries on the mats and leave them in the sun until they dried.  Another option was to mix the berries with maple syrup, pour the mixture onto sheets of birch bark where it was left until it was dry.  Sometimes, berries would be made into little patties.  Then, in the winter, they would boil these patties, sprinkle them with a little maple sugar and they would taste just as sweet as they had in the summer.


Traditional Native American diets were exceptionally healthy, keeping the body and spirit strong.   Many of the berries that Native people gathered, ate and preserved for the long winter months are no exception to this tradition of eating healthy foods.  Strawberries, for example, are an excellent source of vitamin C.   Just 1/2 cup of sliced strawberries provides 68 mg of vitamin C….that is 75% of the daily amount needed by men and 90% of the amount needed by women!  Vitamin C plays an important part in keeping you healthy.  In fact, some experts call vitamin C one of the safest and most effective nutrients around.  Some of the ways vitamin C helps keep you healthy include:

  •  It helps boost your immune system to prevent colds.
  • It helps cuts and wounds heal.
  • It keeps your gums healthy.
  • It helps your body absorb iron and folate from plant sources of food.
  • It keeps your blood vessel walls strong and so protects you from bruising.
  • It helps produce collagen – a connective tissue that holds muscles, bones and other tissues together.
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A wild strawberry plant

 

 

 

Mosquito Story

Though this blog is about nutrition education in Wisconsin Tribal communities, this story about the origins of momosquitosquitoes has a nutrition link:  the mosquitoes are well nourished this year!

Enjoy this story of the mosquito as told by Red Cliff descendant, Ida Nemec.  Please feel free to leave any other legends of the mosquito that you may have heard in the comments.  Miigwetch!


Long ago in the land of the Ojibwe, everything was good. Summer brought miini-giizis, the Blueberry Moon. The people offered prayers of thanksgiving to Gitchi Manito, the Great Spirit.

Then something strange happened. One of the hunters did not return after spending the day in the forest.  Someone said, “Don’t worry; he is probably on the track of a rabbit or deer. He will return in the morning. But he never returned.  Then a woman went to the creek for water and never returned.  Later that day a grandmother went in the forest for wood, and she never returned.

The “white hairs”, elders gathered in one place. As, they talked of the disappearances in their village, a “white hair” named Waboose remembered a story he heard long ago when he was very small. The people had disappeared without a trace, never to be seen again, and suddenly he knew.  The Windigo had returned and was in the forest eating the people.

The Windigo is a terrible giant of the forest.  His ways are very strange.  You might be out in the forest sitting down or gathering firewood and you hear:  T-R-R-R-O-M-P  T-R-R-R-0-M-P  T-R-R-R-O-M-P, the great heavy footsteps of the Windigo.  You might turn around quickly or you might turn around very slowly, but you will never see the Windigo.  He has the power to turn himself into anything he wants; a boulder, a birch tree, or an old stump. You never know where the Windigo is until he has you and then it is too late!

That evening the People held a council meeting to decide what to do about the terrible Windigo. They decided they had to trap him, so they went deep into the forest and dug a deep pit.  They put venison in the bottom of the pit and covered it with birch bark, logs and sticks so the Windigo could not tell it was there.

Everyone hid in the forest behind trees and bushes and waited for the Windigo to come.  Deep in the middle of the night when it was very dark, they heard a sound.          T-R-R-R-0-M-P       T-R-R-R-O-M-P           T-R-R-R-O-M-P.  Then another sound.   SNIFF     SNIFF   SNIFF.  He was smelling the venison.  Or…. was he smelling the people?

Suddenly there was a great  C-R-R-R-A-S-H and they knew they had caught the Windigo.  Quickly the people ran to the edge of the pit and threw in glowing embers from their council fire.  Soon a great fire was roaring in the bottom of the pit.  The people were frightened and ran back to their hiding places.   When it was quiet they crept back to the edge of the trap.  There in the bottom of the fiery pit was the Windigo. And he was furious!   “I’ll get you for this” he roared.  I’ll come back again and again and again – and I’ll eat you and you and you and your children and their grandchildren forever and ever.  Terrified the people fled. This time they waited a long, long time and until there was no sound from the pit. When they returned all that was left of the terrible Windigo was a pile of ashes.   “Gather the ashes” said Waboose.  So they gathered the ashes and took them to the top of a high hill and threw them high up into the air, scattering ashes all over the North Woods. The WIndigo was no more. Gone to the Land of the Shadows.

481522799In fact, the people had almost forgotten about the terrible Windigo. Then one summer day Waboose and his grandchildren were sitting by a lake, fishing. ‘Aaaaa!” shouted Little Brother, suddenly and struck his arm.  “Oh!” cried his granddaughter and slapped the back of her hand.  “Aiee!” they both shouted as they swatted themselves here and there.

Waboose looked closely and he noticed something strange. Though there was no fire anywhere nearby, little ashes seemed to be floating in the air.  The ashes gathered in a cloud around the three friends. They were landing on his skin and BITING him! They left little bumps that itched and itched.  “It is the Windigo!  He has come back”

“Yes, my granddaughter, I’m afraid he is back and he will be coming back every summer from now on eating all of us, just as he said he would”.